Bound For the Promised Land: Harriet Tubman, Portrait of an American Hero by Kate Clifford Larson, Ph.D.

 

 

Harriet Tubman and the Underground Railroad


The following is a list of the names of the people Tubman rescued personally, and those to whom she gave detailed instructions so they could find their way to freedom on their own, and the associated dates.  Below the lists of names I have provided brief descriptions of each mission. I have also listed all the known individuals who helped Tubman during her missions.

 

Harriet Tubman fled slavery on the Eastern Shore of Maryland in the late fall of 1849.  Once she reached freedom in Philadelphia, she felt that liberty and freedom meant little without the people she loved. She vowed then to return and bring away her family and close friends.  Tapping into an already well oiled Underground Railroad network, she was incredibly successful. Over time, and after adding her own connections and trusted friends and colleagues, she became one of the most prolific Underground Railroad conductors of all time.  Fortunately, Tubman developed deep and lasting friendships with many black and white abolitionists who documented her rescue missions.

 

Over a ten year period, 1850-1860, Tubman directly assisted 60 to 70 people, mostly family and friends, but also provided detailed instructions to another 60-70 or so freedom seekers who found their way to freedom on their own.  Further research will most likely provide names listed below as unknown.  During the late 1850s, Tubman spoke at several anti-slavery meetings, in churches, and abolitionists home, where she told her audiences that she had made 8 to 9 trips and rescued 50 to 60 people.  By following the document trail from Maryland to Canada, we have come to identify approximately 13 trips.

 

Direct rescues by Tubman:

 

December 1850

  1. Kessiah Jolley Bowley
  2. James Alfred Bowley – 6 years old
  3. Araminta Bowley - infant
  4. John Bowley (free)

 

Early 1851

  1. Moses Ross - brother
  2. unidentified man
  3. unidentified man

 

Late 1851

  1. unidentified man called “brother”
  2. unidentified wife of “brother”
  3. unidentified
  4. unidentified
  5. unidentified
  6. unidentified
  7. unidentified
  8. unidentified
  9. unidentified
  10.  unidentified
  11.  unidentified

 

Fall 1852

  1. unidentified
  2. unidentified
  3. unidentified
  4. unidentified
  5. unidentified
  6. unidentified
  7. unidentified
  8. unidentified
  9. unidentified

 

June 1854

  1. Winnebar (Winory or William) Johnson – went to New Bedford

 

Christmas 1854

  1. Robert Ross, alias John Stewart
  2. Henry Ross, alias William Henry Stewart
  3. Benjamin Ross, Jr., alias James Stewart
  4. Jane Kane, alias Catherine Stewart (fiancé of Ben Ross, Jr.)
  5. Peter Jackson, alias Staunch (Tench) Tilghman
  6. John Chase, alias Daniel Lloyd
  7. unidentified, possibly George Ross
  8. unidentified, possibly William Thompson
  9. unidentified
  10. unidentified

 

Early 1855

  1. Harriet Ann Parker Ross, alias Harriet Ann Stewart (free)
  2. William Henry Ross, son (free)
  3. John Isaac Ross, alias John [James] Isaac Stewart, son (free)

          (wife and children of William Henry Ross Stewart Sr.)

 

December 1855

  1. Henry Hooper, probably guided

 

May 1856

  1. Ben Jackson
  2. James Coleman
  3. Henry Hopkins
  4. William Conoway (aka) Cook

 

October 1856

  1. Tilly

 

November 1856

  1. Josiah Bailey
  2. William Bailey
  3. Peter Pennington
  4. Eliza Manokey

 

May 1857

  1. Harriet “Rit” Green Ross, alias Harriet “Rit” Stewart
  2. Benjamin Ross, alias Benjamin Stewart

          (Tubman’s parents)

 

November-December 1860

  1. Stephen Ennals
  2. Maria Ennals
  3. Harriet Ennals
  4. Amanda Ennals
  5. baby Ennals
  6. probably John Cornish, alias John Wesley Reed
  7. unidentified woman

 

unknown dates

  1. Margaret Stewart
  2. Ann Marie Stewart
  3. unidentified twin girl
  4. unidentified twin girl
  5. Amelia Hollis, alias Amelia “Millie” Hollis Stewart
  6. Henry Carrol (New Bedford)

 

 

With Tubman’s indirect assistance:

 

May 1854

  1.  Jane Pennington – probable (went to New Bedford to live w/parents)

 

August 1854

  1. Samuel Green, Jr

 

December 1855

  1. Joseph Cornish, probably encouraged

 

September 1856 – possible encouragement

  1. Francis Molock
  2. Cyrus Mitchell
  3. Joshua Handy
  4. Charles Dutton
  5. Ephraim Hudson

 

February-March 1857 – “Dover Eight”

  1. Thomas Elliott,
  2. Denwood [Denard] Hughes,
  3. Henry Predeaux [Predo],
  4. James Woolford
  5. Lavinia Woolford [Woolfley],
  6. William Kiah alias William Williams
  7. Emily Kiah alias Emily Williams (later returned with husband to Maryland to rescue their daughter Mary Kiah Williams)
  8. unidentified man named Tubman
  9. unidentified person who turned back

 

October 1857

  1. Carolyn Stanley
  2. Daniel Stanley
  3. Dan Stanley Jr.
  4. John Stanley
  5.  Miller Stanley
  6. Caroline Stanley
  7. Joseph Stanley
  8. Metia Stanley
  9. Nat Amby
  10. Lizzie Amby
  11. Hannah Peters 
  12. William Griffen
  13. Henry Moore
  14. James Camper
  15. Noah Ennals
  16. Levin Parker

 

October 1857 - aka "Cambridge 28" 

  1. Aaron Cornish
  2. Daffney Cornish
  3. Solomon Cornish
  4. George Anthony Cornish
  5. Joseph Cornish
  6. Edward James Cornish
  7. Perry Lake Cornish
  8. two week old infant Cornish
  9. Kit (Chris) Anthony
  10. Leah Anthony
  11. Adam Anthony
  12. Mary Anthony
  13. Murray Anthony
  14. Joseph Hill
  15. Alice Hill (free)
  16. Henry Hill (free)
  17. Joe Viney
  18. Susan Viney
  19. Joe Viney, Jr.
  20. Tom Viney
  21. Henry Viney
  22. Lloyd Viney
  23. Frank Viney
  24. Albert Viney
  25.  J.W. Viney
  26. Sarah Jane Hill
  27. Solomon Light
  28. George Light
  29. Marshall Dutton
  30. Silas Long

 

The above two escapes totaled 44 people and were referred to in national newspapers at the time as the "Stampede of Slaves"

     

     Here are a few more details on the above names and missions:

     

    1. Kessiah Jolley Bowley and her two children James Alfred and baby Araminta, December 1850. Tubman’s first directed rescue mission.  Settled in Chatham, Ontario, Canada, then moved to Auburn briefly before returning and settling in Dorchester County after the Civil War.

     

    2. Moses Ross, Tubman’s youngest brother, and two other men 1851. Whereabouts unknown

     

    3 [?].  Unidentified  group of 11 -  late 1851 (not sure if this trip and one above are one in the same)

     

    4.  Unidentified group of 9  fall 1852

     

    5.  Winnebar Johnson  June 1854  Settled in New Bedford, MA

     

    6.  Christmas 1854
    Robert, Ben and Henry Ross (aka, John, James, and William Henry Stewart)
    Jane Kane (aka, Catherine Kane Stewart)
    Peter Jackson (aka Staunch [Tench] Tilghman)
    John Chase (aka Daniel Lloyd)
    (
    Also possibly George Ross and William Thompson
    Possibly two other unidentified man) 

    Robert and Henry (John and William Henry Stewart) settled in St. Catharines; , Ben and fiance/wife Jane  (James and Catherine Stewart) settled first in Chatham, then in St. Catharines, then Catherine moved to Auburn.

    7.  Harriet Ann Parker Ross and children William Henry Ross Jr. and probably John Henry Ross Jr., early to mid 1855 (alias Harriet Stewart, William Henry Stewart and John [James] Isaac Stewart) – these people are the wife and children of Henry Ross (above), aka William Henry Stewart. Harriet Ann Parker was a free woman, daughter of Isaac and Julia Parker of Dorchester County. Harriet Ann and Henry Ross's children were born free.  Settled in Grantham, St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada

    8.  Henry Hooper, and Joseph Cornish probably inspired by Tubman, December 1855. Cornish settled in St. Catharines.
     
    9.  Ben Jackson, James Coleman, William A. Conoway, John Houston May 1856. From "Cabin Creek" near East New Market, Dorchester County, MD. 

     

    10.  Tilly October 21,1856. Last name and whereabouts unknown, probably settled in St. Catharines or Toronto. 


    11.  Joseph Bailey, William Bailey, Peter Pennington, Eliza Manokey November 1856. Joe and Bill Bailey settled in St. Catharines, Ontario; Peter Pennington in Sarnia, Ontario; Manokey had been enslaved by Anne Grieves, and had fled in January 1856, hiding out for 11 months before meeting up with Tubman and these others in Delaware and traveling with them to Wilmington, Philly, NYC, and beyond.  Where she ended up is unknown. He husband, Bill Banks, was a free man.

     
    12.  Benjamin and Harriet “Rit” Ross -Tubman’s parents – (alias Ben and Rit Stewart) May-June 1857. They were free but under suspicion for aiding slaves to escape when Tubman brought them away.  Settled with Tubman and others in St. Catharines, then moved to Auburn, NY.

    13.  Stephen and Maria Ennals and Nov.-Dec. 1860 their 3 children, Harriet, Amanda, and a 3 month old infant; and one man named John [probably John Wesley Cornish Reed] and another unidentified woman.  This was Tubman’s last rescue mission. Whereabouts unknown.  John W. Reed settled in Auburn.


    During this same time period, Tubman also provided detailed instructions to another 60-70 or so freedom seekers who found their way to freedom using her instructions and contacts along the UGRR in the region.

    Samuel Green Jr., August 1854. Settled in Ontario, Canada.

    September 1856 – not sure if Tubman informed this group personally or not:

    Francis Molock, Cyrus Mitchell, Joshua Handy, Charles Dutton, Ephraim Hudson. Molock settled in Owen Sound, Ontario.  Other whereabouts unknown.

    Two unidentified children that Tubman was hoping to rescue per Thomas Garrett – (not sure if this trip was successful, or did it coincide with Francis Molock group September 1856 .  Cannot know for sure if this is a separate trip or it happened at all)  Francis Molock settled in Owen Sound, Ontario, Canada.

    The famous "Dover Eight" in March 1857Thomas Elliott, Denwood [Denard] Hughes, Henry Predeaux [Predo], James and Lavinia Woolford [Woolfley], Bill and Emily Kiah [Chion] (alias William and Emily Williams, who later returned to Maryland to rescue their daughter Mary), and an unidentified eighth man, ("Tubman") and an unidentified ninth person (woman?) who turned back.  Thomas Elliott and Denwood Hughes later joined several other Dorchester County freedom seekers in Canada, Joe and Bill Bailey, and Peter Pennington (all of whom fled with Tubman in the late fall of 1856), in support of John Brown.  They were supposed to join him on his raid in Harper's Ferry, but for unknown reasons they were not with Brown on the day of the fatal assault. Thomas Elliott moved to Auburn, NY by 1862, then married Tubman's niece, Ann Marie Stewart and they settled in Auburn, NY. William and Emily Williams and daughter Mary settled in Auburn, NY.

    Fall of 1857, Tubman gave instructions for following her UGRR route north to two groups, over 44 enslaved people from Dorchester County.  They were:

    Early October 1857. Carolyn and Daniel Stanley and six of their seven children - Dan Jr., John, Miller, Caroline, Joseph, Metia;  Nat and Lizzie Amby, Hannah Peters, William Griffen, Henry Moore, James Camper, Noah Ennals, and Levin Parker.   The Stanley’s settled in St. Catharines; Nat and Lizzy Amby settled in Auburn, then whereabouts unknown; others whereabouts unknown.

    Late October 1857.  Aaron and Daffney Cornish and six of their eight children - Solomon, George Anthony, Joseph, Edward James, Perry Lake, and a two week old infant - Kit and Leah Anthony and their three children - Adam, Mary, and Murray - Joseph and free wife Alice and son Henry, Joe and Susan Viney, and their children, Joe Jr., Tom, Henry, Lloyd, Frank, Albert, and J.W., Joseph Hill's sister, Sarah Jane,  Solomon and George Light, Marshall Dutton, and Silas Long, for a total of 28 runaways (excluding free Alice and son Henry.)  The Cornish’s, Viney’s, Anthony’s and Hill’s settled in St. Catharines; whereabouts of  Light, Dutton, and Long unknown.

    This brings the total number of individuals that Tubman rescued personally, as well as helped indirectly, to approximately 120-140.

     

    Known people who directly assisted Tubman on her rescue missions:

     Unidentified white woman in Dorchester or Caroline County who first helped Tubman on her personally successful flight to freedom in late 1849.

     Samuel Green, Sr.  African American Methodist exhorter/minister in East New Market, Dorchester County.

    Unidentified Black woman in East New Market/Cabin Creek area who alerted other freedom seekers Tubman was in the area. (possibly Sam Green’s wife Kitty?)

     Jacob Jackson, African American veterinarian, laborer, farmer in the Parson’s Creek to Madison area, Dorchester County.

     Unidentified white woman in Cambridge who helped hide John and Kessiah Jolley Bowley and their  children before they sailed for Baltimore

     John Bowley, husband of Tubman’s niece, Kessiah Jolley Bowley, assisted in the rescue of Kessiah and their two children.  From Madison and Cambridge, Dorchester County.

     Major Bowley, brother of John Bowley, helped John and Kessiah when they arrived in Baltimore.

     Ben Ross Sr. – Tubman’s father, Poplar Neck/Preston area Caroline County.

     Tom Tubman, Tubman’s “cousin” or brother-in-law, and a stevedore on Baltimore’s Fell’s Point waterfront

     Thomas Otwell, African American laborer/farmer and UGRR conductor who betrayed the “Dover Eight”, from Kent County, Delaware.

    William Brinkley. African American farmer/laborer in Camden, Delaware

    Nathaniel Brinkley. African American farmer/laborer in Camden, Delaware

     Abraham/Abel Gibbs. African American farmer/laborer in Camden, Delaware

    Thomas Garrett, white Quaker businessman and major UGGR stationmaster in Wilmington, Delaware.

     William Still, African American businessman, Philadelphia Vigilance Committee officer, major UGRR stationmaster. Still had additional staff and a network of helpers. To be expanded and added to this list

     James M. McKim, Philadelphia Vigilance Committee officer, major UGRR stationmaster with William Still.

     Nathaniel Dupee, Still’s assistant in Philadelphia

     Mrs. Buchannon, Still’s assistant in Philadelphia

      Lucretia Mott, white Quaker and Women’s rights advocate in Philadelphia.  Probably other friends of Lucretia’s and William Still helped Tubman as well. To be expanded and added to this list.

     Allen and Maria Agnew, Kennet Square, PA

     Jacob White, Still Associate in Philadelphia

     Sydney H. Gay, Vigilance Committee New York City

     Lewis Napoleon, long time African American UGRR agent New York City

     Jacob Gibbs, New York City

     Oliver Johnson, Vigilance Committee New York City

     Stephen Myers, African American newspaper editor, major UGRR stationmaster, in Albany, NY.

     Gerrit Smith, Anna Carroll Fitzhugh Smith, Viney Russell industrialist and his wife, UGRR supporter financier; Russell was servant in Smith household, Peterboro, NY

     Rev. Jermain Loguen,  Samuel J. May, and William E. Abbott, African American and other UGRR stationmasters in Syracuse, NY

    Charles Sedgewick, Syracuse, NY

     David and Martha Coffin Wright, , women’s rights advocate and Lucretia Mott’s sister, in Auburn, NY.

     William H. Seward, became Secretary of State during Civil War; and wife and Frances Seward in Auburn, NY

    P.R. Freeman free African American in Auburn, NY

    John W. Jones, African American UGRR agent in Elmira, NY –  possibly helped Tubman.

    Frederick Douglass and Anna Murray Douglass, African American orator, UGRR stationmaster and agent, newspaper editor, in Rochester, NY. Douglass had additional staff and a network of helpers. Below:

    J. P. Morris, Rochester, NY

    Maria Porter, Rochester Ladies Anti-slavery Society member, Douglass supporter, Rochester, NY.

     Susan B. Anthony, Women’s Rights, UGRR supporter, Rochester